From Novelty to Narrative
With the advent of mass media particularly in modern cinema, makes old technologies such as photography (1826-1839), roll film(1880), the Kodak camera (1888), motion pictures (1895- 1893) and motion pictures projector ( 1895- 1896) are become backdated.
Nowadays people love to catch up the latest movies because of the storyline or even thethe technology in term of technicality used such as latest camera and cinema technologies such as sound effect, comfortable viewing environment in cinema and the screen.
In other words, cinema function become a social institution by providing the citizen a world of ‘mass culture’. It also making a purpose by encourage people to having a movie-going habit and providing any kind of entertainment desired by popular culture(Belton, 2013). A great movies come with a good storyline, elements of plot, character, setting, scripts and theme. The director, producer and screen writer will need to study the existence of similarities and differences between movies and the literary work and need to study the
method of adaptation to give the best of storyboard or storyline. In addition, the adaptation of David Copperfield is about compresses the 800 pages novel into 180 minutes. According to the Wiiliam Costazo (1992), the adaptation is ‘betrayal’ of original works.
According to John Harrington (2014) in his book Film and Is Art, he stated the third of allfilms ever made had been adapted from novels and this is comes from literary form such as drama and short stories are estimated 65 percent are contribute from literary forms. For example there are over 200 film versions of Sherlock Holmes and 50 film versions of Romeo and Juliet. Turning a novel into a screenplay not just an easy part this is because there are things that need to be consider.
There are three main points that a film maker, producer or screen writer need might make a major changes in adapting a novels to movie. Which changes demand by a new medium, film maker makes changes to highlight new theme and dramatic changes to a adaption. Which means ‘how’ to make classic story to ‘new’ for the contemporary viewers (Davies, 2011).
1.1 From Literary Text To Film ( Malaysian Context)
In the 1980’s, Malaysia does had a 2D animation cartoon which is Sang Kancil dan Monyet ,Sang Kancil dan Buaya and Arnab Yang Sombong . There are two character which is protagonist and ontogenies. The moral of the story is to spread the idea of good actions will be rewarded. From the Malay old folks to Literary text, people or viewers would love to see the story to
become a television show or movies. In Malaysia context, the old folks like ‘Bawang Putih, Bawang Merah, Hang Tuah and Raja Bersiung does have their audience or readers. Then after 20 years, Malaysia produced two animation films with 2D technology which is Silat Lagenda, Putih within that time DreamWorks and Disney move to 3D animation. This is because Malaysia is lacked of animator expertise and left behind in animation technology advance.
The advance of mass media technologies does affect the viewers. There are major differentin producing a film and a novel or a books. The visualises can stimulate our perceptions and the written words can do directly.
Watching a movie give a viewer’s sensory experience rather than reading a book or novels.Costanzo mentioned in his book: How varies lenses used to enhance visual effects, various shutter speeds, shots, angels, varities of movement, lighting, color, sound tracking and special effect to a add to the final presentation (Costanzo, 1992)
1.1.2 Merong Mahawangsa Film
KRU Studios to produce films of the 8th named Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa , this film took three months of filming and taking adaptation of a literary text , Merong Mahawangsa estimated at one thousand years before the arrival of Islam . The film is directed by Yusri Abdul Halim .
Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa is an epic action-packed movie with mythical characters are loaded with the use of special effects ( CGI ) , sets, costumes and props for translating the 2nd century AD or 120 AD. The film also takes the local and international artist and abroad .
The use of bilingual language also in this film. This film cost a total of RM 8 million and the production has built a main set which are 4 large vessels , Malays Village in the 2nd century , set up of location in Rome and the port of
Goa in India . The film could not be executed if there is no cooperation and support provided by MOSTI (Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation ) through the funds ‘ e – content’ . The film has a variation from the original text because the director and producer wanted to see the relevant in this story is accepted by society in general . Storyline , the main character, supporting character and also some mystical situation also changed to become more relevant and religious sensitivity is also taken into account because this film is shown in the to the public. The changing from literary text to film script is about the acceptance and relevance of the story to be accepted by audience. A film director, Yusry Abdul Halim said:
For me, its better to portray the character of Merong Mahawangsa as a local people at that time and at the meant time do have a relationship with Rome empire. The story is not totally change but yet being portray in a different way (Abdullah, 2011).
In the old folk, Merong Mahawangsa is a of royal descent and was friend of the Roman King. He possess magical power which has made him feared by gods of the ancient time as well as his enemies. Merong Mahawangsa married a lady who is a daughter of a giant.
However, in the film adaptation of this folk, Merong is a mortal who marries a woman from “Semenanjung Emas” / Gold Peninsular named Lang. Besides that, the film version of Merong Mahawangsa is a man who enjoys sailing and a descendent of Alexander The Great who comes from Rome.
The similar adaptation can be seen in other movies such as Clash Of Titans (2010) who tells a story of a mortal who succeed to build his own empire. Merong Mahawangsa is portrayed as someone who is great in archery while in the film adaptation he is portrayed as a sword warrior.
The old folk also states that Raja Merong Mahawangsa returns to Rome after conqueringLangkasuka and Kedah. However, it can be seen that in the film adaptation, Merong Mahawangsa is said to end his life at his own empire.
In the old folk, there was a presence of the Garuda bird which used to live in the prophetSulaiman’s time is portrayed as being very huge and feared by the people. This bird is alsosaid to be able to talk like human. However, the character of the bird is switched to a group of Pirates that is called Garuda.
1.2 From Popular Novel To Movie
Nobody would have thought starting from popular novel and added with commercial values then aired on television, would has a great impact, values and generate a good income to the broadcasting and film industry. In addition, the adaptation work is focused on drama but it also translates into a large scale as a film on the silver screen. Among them are Lagenda Budak Setan film , Untuk Tiga Hari , Pilot Cafe , Suamiku Encik Perfect 10 , and Manisnya Cinta di Cappadoccia .
Creativity & Technology In Malaysia Scenario
BoboiBoy is a Malaysian animated series which produced by Animonsta Studios, themembers of this company is the same team who doing Upin and Ipin. After 5 years broadcast in television, this animated series goes to the silver screen. This company is operated and supported by Multimedia Development Corporation (MDeC).This animated series is published in HDTV format and also being aired in Disney Channel Asia from 18 June 2011 until now.
Until today, this animated series being aired at 45 countries at various language and rating in the YouTube is about 85 million view. This animated series is about a boy has a superpower and able to separate into three. This boy has friend which is Ying, Yaya, Gopal, Fang and they fight the alien who aim to concur the earth.
This series ini about a boy who has superpower and does have ability into three. The popular tagline ‘ terbaik’. According to the AC Nelsen research the viewers who watch this animated is people age between 14 years old and above. This animated series does promote good values such as friendship, leadership and Islamic values. As mentioned by Nizam Razak ( 2015) he had a discussion with one of the Disney Channel Asia members, that Yaya one of the animated character is wearing a hijab, and the members of the Disney
Channel Asia responded is good to have multi races and religion is this animated. According to Nizam Razak, one of the owner of the company said the Boboiboy The Movie, take is take 2 years to complete and there 50 people doing the animation.